Hammertoe

What is a Hammertoe?

A hammertoe is the bending of the toe, also known as a contracture, at the first joint of the digit, called the proximal interphalangeal joint. This bending causes the toe to appear like an upside-down V when looked at from the side. While hammertoe can involve any of the toes, the condition usually affects the second through fifth toes, also known as the lesser digits. Hammertoes are more common to females than to males.

There are two different types:

  • Flexible Hammertoes:
    • This type is less serious because the toe can be diagnosed and treated while still in the developmental stage. They are called flexible hammertoes because they are still moveable at the joint.
  • Rigid Hammertoes:
    • This variety is more developed and more serious than the flexible condition. Rigid hammertoes can be seen in patients with severe arthritis, for example, or in patients who wait too long to seek professional treatment. The tendons in a rigid hammertoe have become tight, and the joint is misaligned and immobile, making surgery the usual course of treatment.

Hammertoe Symptoms

  • The formation of corns on the top of the joint.
  • Redness and swelling at the joint contracture.
  • Pain upon pressure at the top of the bent toe from footwear.
  • Restricted or painful motion of the toe joint.
  • Pain in the ball of the foot at the base of the affected toe.

How Do You Get a Hammertoe?

A hammertoe is formed due an abnormal balance of the muscles in the toes. This abnormal balance causes increased pressures on the tendons and joints of the toe, leading to its contracture. Trauma and heredity can also lead to the formation of a hammertoe. Arthritis is another factor, because the balance around the toe in people with arthritis is so disrupted that a hammertoe may develop. Wearing poor fitting shoes that are too tight and cause the toes to squeeze can also cause a hammertoe to form.

What Can You Do for Relief?

  • Wear shoes with a deep toe box.
  • If the hammertoe becomes inflamed and painful, apply ice packs several times a day to reduce swelling.
  • Apply a commercial, non-medicated hammertoe pad around the bony prominence of the hammertoe. This will decrease pressure on the area.
  • See your podiatric physician if pain persists.
  • Avoid high heels that are more than two inches tall.
  • Avoid wearing shoes that are too tight or narrow. Children should have their shoes properly fitted on a regular basis, as their feet can often outgrow their shoes at a face pace.
  • A loose-fitting pair of shoes can also help protect the foot while reducing pressure on the affected toe, making walking a little easier until a visit to your podiatrist can be scheduled. It is important to remember that, while this treatment will make the hammertoe feel better, it does not cure the condition. A trip to the podiatric physician’s office will be necessary to repair the toe.

What Will Your Podiatrist Do to Treat a Hammertoe?

Hammertoe treatment options vary with the type and severity of each hammertoe, although identifying the deformity early is important to avoid surgery. Medical attention from a podiatric physician should be sought at the first indication of pain and discomfort because, if left untreated, hammertoes tend to become rigid, making a nonsurgical treatment less of an option.

Your podiatric physician will examine and X-ray the affected area and recommend a treatment plan and course of action specific to your condition.

Padding and Taping:
Often padding and taping the toe is the first step in a treatment plan. Padding the hammertoe minimizes pain and allows the patient to continue a normal, active lifestyle. Taping may change the imbalance around the toes and help relieve stress and pain.

Medication:
Anti-inflammatory drugs and cortisone injections can be prescribed in efforts to ease acute pain and inflammation caused by the joint deformity.

Orthotic Devices:
Shoe inserts customl made by your podiatrist may be useful in controlling foot function. An orthotic device may reduce symptoms and help prevent the worsening of the hammertoe deformity.

Surgical Options:
Several surgical hammertoe procedures are available from your podiatric physician. For less severe deformities, the surgery will remove the bony prominence and restore normal alignment of the toe joint, thus relieving pain.

Severe hammertoes, which are not fully reducible, could require more complex surgical procedures.

Post-surgical recuperation takes time. Some swelling and discomfort is common for several weeks following the procedure. Any pain, however, is easily managed with medications prescribed by your foot doctor.

Your Feet Aren’t Supposed to Hurt

Healthy, pain-free feet are a key to your independence. Remember that foot pain is not normal. At the first sign of pain, or any noticeable changes in your feet, seek professional podiatric medical care. Your feet must last you a lifetime, and most Americans log an amazing 75,000 miles on their feet by the time they reach the age of 50. Regular foot care and hygiene can make help ensure that your feet are up to the task. With proper detection, intervention, and care, most foot and ankle problems can be prevented or lessened. Remember that the advice provided on our website should not be used as a substitute for a consultation or evaluation by a podiatric physician.

Hammertoe Tips

  • Apply a commercial, nonmedicated hammertoe pad around the bony prominence of the hammertoe. This will decrease pressure on the area.
  • Wear a shoe with a deep toe box.
  • If the hammertoe becomes inflamed and painful, apply ice packs several times a day to reduce swelling.
  • Avoid heels more than two inches tall.
  • A loose-fitting pair of shoes can also help protect the foot while reducing pressure on the affected toe, making walking a little easier until a visit to your podiatrist can be arranged. It is important to remember that, while this treatment will make the hammertoe feel better, it does not cure the condition. A trip to the podiatric physician’s office will be necessary to repair the toe to allow for normal foot function.
  • Avoid wearing shoes that are too tight or narrow. Children should have their shoes properly fitted on a regular basis, as their feet can often outgrow their shoes rapidly.
  • See your podiatric physician if pain persists.